Levels of Higher Education
Russia’s present-day education system is based upon the Bologna principles and includes such levels of education as bachelor’s degree, specialist degree, master’s degree, postgraduate, clinical internship etc.
At the end of their Degree, students defend their thesis. If successful, the student is awarded a Bachelor's Degree certificate (BA, BSc). The certificate grants the student the right to work according to profession or to further their studies on a Master's Degree course.
Unlike Bachelor's Degrees, Specialist Degrees are more focused on practical work in industry according to the selected discipline. These programmes are offered to individuals who have education equivalent to Russian general secondary or vocational secondary education. The course lasts for a minimum of 5 years. Based on the examination results and thesis defence, a Specialist Degree certificate specifying the qualification (e.g., "Astronomer," "Teacher," "Information Security Specialist," etc.) may be issued. Graduates of a Specialist Degree may work in industry or further their studies on a postgraduate course. They might as well take a Master's course.
This allows in-depth specialisation in the student’s chosen field. Bachelor’s and Specialist Degree holders can enrol in Master's Degree courses. The course lasts at least two years and involves training students for research work. Students defend a thesis which, if successful, leads to a Master's Degree certificate and the qualification of Master.
Highest Professional Training
A POSTGRADUATE COURSE is a form of training for academics. Graduates of a Master's or Specialist Degree can enrol in a postgraduate course. The course includes study, teaching, hands-on experience, and research. Postgraduate students select a research field and subject of research for their dissertation. Full-time study lasts at least 3 years, while part-time study lasts at least 4 years. A graduate is awarded a postgraduate certificate with the corresponding qualification (“Research Fellow,” “Research Teaching Fellow”). Depending on the result of the dissertation defence, a Candidate of Sciences Degree is awarded, which is the first Degree to confirm the status of scientist. Candidates of Sciences proceed to their Doctoral Degree (the second Degree to confirm the status of scientist), which is awarded following successful defence of their doctoral dissertation.
A POSTGRADUATE MILITARY COURSE is the equivalent of a university postgraduate course; however, it is only related to the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs and Ministry of Defence.
A MEDICAL RESIDENCY is the final stage in training in a number of medical (or pharmaceutical) fields. Individuals who hold a higher medical (or pharmaceutical) qualification can enrol in a medical residency. The course lasts 2 years and is a combination of in-depth study of the rudiments of medical sciences with hands-on experience in medical institutions where students develop the necessary professional skills and abilities. The course concludes with a three-stage qualification examination. Graduates are awarded a medical residency certificate and the qualification of specialist, enabling them to work in medical institutions.
AN ASSISTANTSHIP is a form of training of highly qualified personnel working in the arts. Graduates of Specialist or Master's Degrees in this field can train on assistantships. The course lasts up to two years and follows a tailor-made syllabus under the supervision of a mentor and head of department at the university. The graduate qualification work may be a performance, concert, show, exhibition, or film depending on the specialisation. An assistantship concludes with the award of a certificate, with the respective qualification ("Concert Performer and University Professor"), granting the right to perform or teach.
Second Higher Education
Russian legislation grants Russians just one free higher education (of levels 1, 2, or 3), while subsequent study must always be paid for. Foreign citizens who have graduated from a university outside the Russian Federation may enrol in a second higher education course both on a commercial and state-funded basis (subject to successful completion of the selection process). This can be done as part of a Bachelor's (up to 4 years), Specialist (up to 6 years), or Master's (at least 2 years) Degree. The selection process is based on entry examinations. Upon graduation, a certificate is awarded to confirm the qualification.
|Course type||Bachelor's Degree||Specialist Degree||Master's Degree|
|Entry requirements||General secondary education or equivalent||General secondary education or equivalent||
|Duration of study (full-time)||4 years||At least 5 years||2 years|
|Academic qualifications||Bachelor's Degree certificate||Specialist Degree certificate||Master's Degree certificate|
|Qualification (Degree)||BA, BSc||Specialist||MA, MSc|
|Type of study||General basic training in a particular field without specialisation||Focused on practical work in the chosen field||In-depth learning of theoretical aspects with a focus on research|
|Form of final state assessment||State examinations, preparation and defence of Bachelor's thesis||
State examinations and dissertation (project) defence
|State examinations and Master's dissertation defence|
|Further study||Master's Degree||Master's Degree or other postgraduate courses||Postgraduate courses|
Positions requiring a higher education qualification
|Course type||Postgraduate course (MILITARY COURSE IN UNIVERSITIES OF THE RUSSIAN ARMED FORCES AND RUSSIAN MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS)||Medical internship||Assistantship|
|Entry requirements||Master's or Specialist Degree||Higher medical or pharmaceutical education||MA or Specialist Degree|
|Duration of study||
3–4 years (full-time),
4–5 years (part-time)
Up to 2 years
|2 years, full-time only|
|Academic qualification certificate||Postgraduate Degree certificate||Medical internship certificate||Assistantship certificate|
Researcher (qualification), research fellow (qualification),
Candidate of Sciences (degree)
|Specialist||Specialist of highest qualification, senior professor|
|Type of study||Part study, teaching, hands-on experience, research||
In-depth study of teaching, clinical and medical and social rudiments of medical sciences;
acquisition of skills and abilities for independent professional activity during practical study in a medical institution
|Individual syllabus under the supervision of a mentor and head of department at the university|
|Form of final state assessment||
Three qualifying examinations for a candidate's Degree, state examination,
|Three-stage qualification examination||Creative and dramatic arts final graduation work (performance, solo recital, play, exhibition, or film)|
|Further career in a scientific and professional field||Doctoral dissertation defence||Further professional training to master a narrower specialisation, postgraduate course||Preparation of a candidate's dissertation for a Candidate in Art History Degree. Doctoral dissertation defence|
|Employment||Research, analytical and scientific work in accordance with qualification||Work in medical institutions according to qualification||Teaching or professional work in the arts in accordance with qualification|